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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that affects up to 8% of women of reproductive age. PMDD is characterized by a range of physical, psychological, and behavioral symptoms that occur in the days leading up to a woman’s menstrual period. These symptoms can be so severe that they interfere with a woman’s daily life.


The exact cause of PMDD is unknown, but it is believed to be related to the hormonal changes that occur during the menstrual cycle. It is thought that the body’s sensitivity to these hormones may be increased in women with PMDD. Other factors that may contribute to PMDD include genetics, stress, and lifestyle factors.


The most common symptoms of PMDD include mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite. Physical symptoms may include bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and joint or muscle pain. These symptoms usually begin a week or two before a woman’s period and last until the start of her period.


Treatment for PMDD typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes and medications. Lifestyle changes may include stress management techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications may include antidepressants, birth control pills, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).


It is important for women to be aware of the signs and symptoms of PMDD so that they can seek help if needed. If left untreated, PMDD can have a significant impact on a woman’s quality of life. With proper treatment, however, women can manage their symptoms and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

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